The area that would become Achille was originally part of the Chickasaw Nation in Indian Territory. The Bloomfield Academy for Chickasaw girls was located 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of present-day Achille from 1853 until 1914. Cherokee refugees located to the area during the American Civil War and called it “atsila”, meaning fire.
The Missouri, Oklahoma and Gulf Railroad built a line that crossed the region in 1908 and a post office was established in the community in 1910. The community grew from an estimated population of 50 to 500 in 1920. The town’s population had declined to 294 in 1960 and reached a peak number of 506 in 2000.